I know this is an old thread but I have possibly a similar issue. I have made changes in my desktop version of report. I added a third table (that links to one of the other two tables) and added a visualization tab using the new table. It looks okay on desktop and the Premium Power BI desktop version of the report shows the other changes after a refresh off of One Drive for business (The other refresh such as scheduled seems to be disabled for me and doesn;t work.)
But the Premium Service version of the report's tab with the new visualization gives me that same error message. (Error message: This visual contains one or more filters with deleted columns, type mismatches, or other breaking modeling changes.)
I can see all three tables in the Premium service version of the report.
thanks for any help and let me know if I need to post this in a new area much appreciated.