Yes, it's possible although a little unusual to go down to individual value differences since power bi is generally good for aggregations and visualising sequences.
You could create a calculated column similar to this:
DiffPreviousYr = VAR _year = road[run]
VAR _road = road[rd]
VAR _dist = road[dist]
VAR _previousVal = CALCULATE(SUM(road[val1]), FILTER(road, road[dist] = _dist && road[rd] = _road && road[run] = _year - 1))
road[val1] - _previousVal
and, for your visualisation (which includes road, distance and year , and the calculated column) you would need to use slicers or filters on each of those columns so, for example, year = 2019, run = 1, distance = 100