I have this exact same issue, but it's still unresolved using this random fix.
Report works perfectly in Power BI Desktop (My normal PC is W10 1511)
Deploy to PBI Service on Office 365, and it works exactly the same as Power BI Desktop
After a data refresh within PBI service, slicers do not work - most will display only one option "(Blank)"
My PC cannot be upgraded past 1511, so in despration I have installed a W10 VM and updated to 1803, transferred the pbix over to it, and redeployed it - however this still doesn't make any difference.
Net effect is that it is impossible to schedule data refresh on the PBI service, as it will break all of the slicers, which otherwise work perfectly provided that the PBI service does not do a data refresh.
I have systematically deleted almost every single object in the report (translation, query source, query, report tab, etc.) until the issue seemed to resolve itself - isolating it down to what was seemingly a single translation - however after I went back and removed that translation from the proper report, it didn't fix it. I can only conclude that there is a bug in the PBI service's data refresh that does not exist in the PBI desktop - which is extremely frustrating.
@nelsong20does this sound like the same issue? Is there anything else you can think of that could possibly be the resolution?